03 - Signers of the Treaties

During the 1800s Ojibwe people met many times over the summer in treaty session. It was at these treaty meetings that the chiefs had to represent their bands in the government negotiations. Some of the chiefs had to come from far into the interior for the meetings. It would take weeks for the journey.

The traditional chiefs from each band were usually accompanied by lesser chiefs and the two top warriors from their band. These warriors were often called headmen.

Consequently, those who are recorded as having signed Ojibwe treaties are traditional chiefs, headmen and warriors. They represented the many bands in the treaty makings. They also had to report back to their bands and discuss the details and ramifications of the treaty issues.

photo courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

1913 - Leech Lake

Signing of the Declaration of Allegiance to the U.S. Government

As these Ojibwe leaders signed treaties, their Indian names were written down, and their band. Their particular bands that signed the treaties were evidence that significant villages were present.

Many of those villages do not yet remain Indian land. A classic example is the village of Gull Lake. Bug-o-nay-ge-shig, or Hole-in-the-day, as he was known, led his people for many years residing on the shores of Gull Lake. The surrounding area also was the home of many Ojibwe people.

Madeline Island, which is mentioned many times in the Midewiwin speeches of our tribe, was once the site of the longest Ojibwe villages of all time. It, along with Sandy Lake, was the center point of Ojibwe people.

These, then, are the chiefs, headmen and warriors who have been recorded as signing the Ojibwe treaties. When they were recorded, the government stenographers made countless mistakes in the spelling of their names. We have corrected them where possible.



LAKE SUPERIOR BANDS

Grand Portage

Shaw-ga-nah-sheence

Kitchi-inini

Maw-da-gaw-me

Way-mi-tee-go-she

Bay-me-ge-wung

Ah-deek-once

May-mahsh-ko-wash

We-wigi-wam


Wisconsin and some Michigan bands are included here because they were a part of the 1854 Lake Superior treaty. It is important to note that in those times Ojibwe people were not divided by state boundaries. Also, a great kinship was felt by all Ojibwe Indians as they migrated eastward. Many Ojibwe in Minnesota and Ontario can trace their people's ancestry to Madeline Island.

Lac Du Flambeau

Me-zha-kwad

Ah-mous

Ke-nish-ti-no-ah

Mee-giz-ee

Kay-kay-go-nay-ah-shee

Oh-chi-chag

Nay-she-kay-gwaw-nay-be

O-shkaw-bay-wis

Kwi-wi-zaince

Nee-gig

Nay-wadj-ee-gee-zhick

Kway-kway-kee-gah

Wa-ba-nim-ikee

Wa-bish-kah-kah-gay

Oh-ge-ma-gah Bah-se-quam-jis


Ojibwe historians tell of "the time when we lived by the great salt water..." This map shows the path of the Ojibwe from the original homeland to the lands occupied today - primarily in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota and bordering provinces of Canada.

LAKE SUPERIOR BANDS


She-gawg Ontonagon

O-cun-de-cun

Wa-say-geeshick

Keesh-ke-taw-wug

Oh-gaw-bay-ah-naw-kwad

Wa-bish-kee-bee-nays

Bay-bahm-ah-sing

Keesh-kee-mun

LeVieux Desert, L'anse, Bad River

David King

John Southwind

Pete Marksman

Naw-taw-me-geeshick

Aw-se-neence

May-dway-aush

Bash-kway-geen

Lac Courte Oreilles

Ah-kee-wain-zee

Key-no-zhaince

Kitchi-bi-nay-see

Kitchi-wah-bi-shay-she

Wah-bi-shay-sheence

Kway-kway-cub

Shaw-waw-go-me-tay

Nay-naw-ong-gay-be

O-saw-wehsh-ko-geeshick

Ay-yaw-baynce


LAKE SUPERIOR BANDS

Fond du Lac

Shin-goob

Mang-oh-zid

An-ni-mah-sung

Na-ga-nab

Naw-bun-way-geeshick

Manito-geeshick

Oh-saw-gee

May-kwaw-me-we-geeshick

Kay-tah-waw-be-day

Kitchi-aki-wainze

Keesh-kwak

Wenji-ma-dub



Photos courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

Chief Buffalo

Age 96 - Died 1856

La Pointe

Head Chief of the large Lake Superior Band. Every chief was given a large land allotment by the U.S. Government. In 1854, Chief Buffalo chose his allotment on the present day site of Duluth.

Bee-zhi-kee

Ta-kwaw-gah-nah

Cha-ching-gway-oh

Shee-we-tah-gin

Ki-mi-wun

Ma-ka-dey-bi-nay-see

O-shkin-ah-wey

Ah-da-we-geeshick

Bay-bah-me-say

Na-wa-ge-wah-nos

MISSISSIPPI, PILLAGER, WINNIBIGOSHISH BANDS

Mille Lacs

Me-gee-see

Nay-kwan-ay-bee

Bah-kay-naw-gay

Wah-jushk-ko-kone

Wenji-gee-shee-guck

Adawe-gee-shick

Ka-ka-gwap


MISSISSIPPI, PILLAGER, WINNIBIGOSHISH BANDS

St. Croix, Snake, & Chippewa River

Be-zhe-ke Ka-be-ma-be

Ba-gah-wey-we-wedung

Ay-ya-banse

Kish-kee-ta-wag

Na-tam-ee-ga-bow

Sah-ga-tah-gun

No-din

Sha-go-bay

Sho-nee-yah

Wee-mi-ti-go-sheens

Sandy Lake, Rice Lake (Pokegama)

Ah-aw-be-dway-we-dung

Miskwa-dace

Mah-no-min-i-kay-shee

Bee-dud-ence

Ma-ya-je-way-we-dung

Naw-gawn-nee-gah-bow

Mah-ya-ge-way-dung

Kitchi-wee-mi-ti-goshe

Leech Lake & Winnibigoshish

Aish-ke-bug-e-koshe

Bi-shee-kee

Nah-bi-nay-aush

O-gee-mah-wah-che-waib

Ki-mi-wan-aush

Mis-ko-bee-nay-say

Manido-gee-shig

O-gee-tub

Kaw-be-mah-bee

Kitchi-sai-yay

Mah-ji-gah-bow

Photos courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society


Indians at Grand Portage at foot of Rose Hill about 1885. Chiefs and men stopped game of la crosse to meet with government officials. Chief May-maush-ko-waush stands in from holding tomahawk and wearing a chiefs medal, 6th from left in back row is Mike Flatt.


MISSISSIPPI, PILLAGER, WINNIBIGOSHISH BANDS

Mississippi Band

Ga-nawn-da-maw-win-so

Ay-yah-baince

O-taw-waw

By-ah-jig

Ih-yah-shaw-wey-ge-zhick

Mah-ko-dey

Ke-wey-cah-me-gee-shkung

Gah-besh-ko-da-way

Wah-dee-na



Photos courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

Chief Wabanaquot or White Cloud of White Earth


Gull Lake and Crow Wing


Bug-oh-nay-gee-shig

Wah-bo-jeeg

Wah-ba-na-kwad

Manido-wab

Sho-baush-kung

Kwi-wi-zaince

Wa-de-kaw

Way-nah-me

Song-ah-cumig

Photos courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society

Delegation of Leech Lake Ojibwe Leaders in Washington D.C. 1889.


Rabbit Lake

Me-jaw-ke-ki-zhick

Ah-ah-jaw-way-ge-shick

Day-dah-com-mo-say

Moz-oh-mah-nay

Way-saw-wah-no-nayb

Mino-gee-shick


MISSISSIPPI, PILLAGER, WINNIBIGOSHISH BANDS

Nett Lake, Vermillion, Pelican, Basswood Lake

Ga-besh-co-daway

Ba-baw-madjew-esh-cang

Way-zaw-we-je-zhick-way-sking

O-saw-way-bi-nay-see

Shay-way-be-nay-see

Bah-pee-oh

Ah-da-wawnequa-bee-nays

Sa-gwa-da-came-gish-cang

Ne-oning

Wa-ba-gam-agwa

Gan-ah-wah-bam-ina

Gaw-nanda-ma-winzo

Ah-be-tang


Last modified: Monday, July 23, 2018, 8:07 AM